Flexible Conjugate Gradients

Yvan Notay


We analyze the conjugate gradient method with preconditioning slightly variable from one iteration to the next. To maintain the optimal convergence properties, we consider a variant proposed by Axelsson that performs an explicit orthogonalization of the search directions vectors. For this method, which we refer to as flexible conjugate gradient, we develop a theoretical analysis that shows that the convergence rate is essentially independent of the variations in the preconditioner as long as the latter are kept sufficiently small. We further discuss the real convergence rate on the basis of some heuristic arguments supported by numerical experiments. Depending on the eigenvalue distribution corresponding to the fixed reference preconditioner, several situations have to be distinguished. In some cases, the convergence is as fast with truncated versions of the algorithm or even with the standard conjugate gradient method, whereas quite large variations are allowed without too much penalty. In other cases, the flexible variant effectively outperforms the standard method, while the need for truncation limits the size of the variations that can be reasonably allowed.